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ADRECI Publications

Authors: Martin Brown Munene, Janes Ouma Odongo, Anne Nyambane
Publication Place: Rabat, Morocco
Date: July 2019
Number of pages: 41
Language: English

Author(s): Martin Brown Munene, Mashauri Muliro, Yves Niyiragira, Lazarus Kubasu
This research report presents an analysis of the state-of-the-art of energy efficiency (EE) at the household level in Kenya. It evaluates the public awareness and practice of EE and, the relevant policy instruments and measures for achieving EE, and the challenges facing the realisation of EE in the country. Based on a desktop research and a survey of 137 households in Kenya, this report provides insights into the various energy demand and consumption aspects that influence the adoption of EE practices at the household level in the country. These include the different types of energy being used domestically in the household level, the respondents’ knowledge of EE, household energy consumption monitoring/tracking trends, respondents’ perception of EE, knowledge on the potential EE practices, benefits associated with EE, and their knowledge regarding climate change dynamics and how these compare with domestic energy use. It further explores the potential motivations for adopting EE practices as well as the current and preferred EE knowledge sharing platforms/channels to enhance knowledge and diffusion of EE ideas and options.

It concludes that the prevalent energy use practices are not necessarily energy efficient. The key determinant for energy use practices appears to be the socioeconomic class (i.e. linked to wealth/poverty) and education levels of the household decision-makers. These attributes also seem to influence the choice of energy and information sources. In effect, the study establishes that some pockets of Kenyans adhere to EE practices while others do not. Other factors that play a role in this include the cost of energy and appliances, user attitudes and access to adequate information on energy conservation and efficiency. Most households have limited options for switching energy sources and use. This is largely due to the monopoly of Kenya’s national electricity utility company, the Kenya Power (formerly known as the Kenya Power and Lighting Company, KPLC). We find that there have been and are several EE policies/regulations and initiatives in the country. However, their implementation and effectiveness face (or faced) a myriad of challenges including lack of support from the regulators, the regulated and the political leadership. Most Kenyans also are oblivious of these regulations or policies and the specific EE initiatives in their localities.

This study was undertaken by ADRECI with financial supported from the Heinrich Böll Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Rabat – Morocco. It is published under the framework of the transformAfrica program: Towards ecological and social transformation in Africa.

Social and ecological transformation in South Africa
Lieu de publication: Rabat
Date de publication: Novembre 2017
Nombre de pages: 20
Licence: Tous droits réservés
Langue: Français et Anglais

Cet article fournit une analyse des changements sociaux et écologiques en Afrique du Sud dans le but de contribuer à la compréhension des différentes perspectives, perceptions et idées sur les questions liées aux processus de transition sociale et écologique dans le pays. Le document examine certaines des transitions socio-écologiques pertinentes dans le pays identifie les principaux défis écologiques induits par le climat en Afrique du Sud, et explore leurs implications sociales.
Le document conclut que les débats sociétaux autour du changement climatique en Afrique du Sud sont plus étroitement liés aux réalités socio-économiques qu’aux menaces futures. Il note que, si les politiques et les plans expriment la volonté, les actions concrètes visant à transformer les systèmes sociaux et écologiques en vue de renforcer la résilience sont lentes ou intangibles. Le document attribue cela à la dispensation sociopolitique et à l’environnement de gouvernance du pays.

L’histoire et l’héritage de l’apartheid continuent également de faire traîner le pays en termes de progrès significatifs dans les transformations socio-écologiques. Il conclut également que la participation des acteurs critiques tels que la société civile locale et les groupes autochtones est insuffisante, ce qui est lié à leur capacité insuffisante à s’engager dans les aspects techniques du changement climatique. Il recommande des approches adaptatives à plusieurs niveaux pour comprendre et relever les défis du changement climatique, et un soutien ciblé accru pour susciter les voies nécessaires aux développements sociaux et écologiques souhaités.

Author(s): Martin Brown Munene, Mashauri Muliro, Yves Niyiragira, Lazarus Kubasu
This paper provides an analysis of social and ecological changes in South Africa with the aim to contribute to the understanding of the various perspectives, perceptions and insights of issues related to the social and ecological transitions processes in the country. It examines some of the relevant social-ecological transitions in the country, identifies the main climate-induced ecological challenges in South Africa, and explores their social implications.
The paper concludes that the societal debates around climate change in South Africa are more closely interlinked with the socioeconomic realities than with the future threats. It notes that whereas there is will expressed in policies and plans, actual action to transform the social and ecological systems for the enhancement of resilience is slow or intangible. The paper attributes this to socio-political dispensation and governance environment of the country.

The apartheid history and legacy also continue to drag the country behind in terms of making meaningful progress in socio-ecological transformations. It concludes that there is inadequate involvement of critical actors such as the local civil society and indigenous groups, which is related to their inadequate capacity to engage with the technical aspects of climate change. It recommends multi-level, adaptive approaches to understanding and responding to the challenges of climate change and increased targeted support to spark necessary pathways to the desired social and ecological developments.