It concludes that the prevalent energy use practices are not necessarily energy efficient. The key determinant for energy use practices appears to be the socioeconomic class (i.e. linked to wealth/poverty) and education levels of the household decision-makers. These attributes also seem to influence the choice of energy and information sources. In effect, the study establishes that some pockets of Kenyans adhere to EE practices while others do not. Other factors that play a role in this include the cost of energy and appliances, user attitudes and access to adequate information on energy conservation and efficiency. Most households have limited options for switching energy sources and use. This is largely due to the monopoly of Kenya’s national electricity utility company, the Kenya Power (formerly known as the Kenya Power and Lighting Company, KPLC). We find that there have been and are several EE policies/regulations and initiatives in the country. However, their implementation and effectiveness face (or faced) a myriad of challenges including lack of support from the regulators, the regulated and the political leadership. Most Kenyans also are oblivious of these regulations or policies and the specific EE initiatives in their localities.This study was undertaken by ADRECI with financial supported from the Heinrich Böll Heinrich-Böll-Stiftung Rabat – Morocco. It is published under the framework of the transformAfrica program: Towards ecological and social transformation in Africa.